Notes:
Data cut-off date: September 25, 2022

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Identity Alleged Offenses and Background Details Date Arrested Grounds for Arrest (NSL) Grounds for Arrest (Non-NSL) Date Charged Charges (NSL) Charges (Non-NSL) Date Sentenced Convictions (NSL) Convictions (Non-NSL) Status
Tong Ying-kit Rode a motorcycle into a group of police officers with a flag bearing a forbidden slogan; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Inciting or abetting secession, Terrorist action Dangerous driving 2020-07-03 Inciting or abetting secession, Terrorist action Dangerous driving 2021-07-30 Inciting or abetting secession, Terrorist action Denied bail, Trial by a panel of three judges instead of a jury, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Male, 38 years old A flag with the phrase “Hong Kong Independence” was found among his belongings; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Secession Granted police bail
Female, 36 years old Printed materials relating to Hong Kong independence were found among her belongings; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Unspecified NSL offense Granted police bail
Female, 36 years old Printed materials relating to Hong Kong independence were found among her belongings; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Unspecified NSL offense Granted police bail
Female, 67 years old, surname Chow Displayed the British national flag, the U.S. national flag, and a pro-Hong Kong independence banner; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Inciting or abetting secession Granted police bail
Female, 15 years old Waved a pro-independence banner; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Unspecified NSL offense Granted police bail
Male, 24 years old Wore a T-shirt bearing a forbidden slogan; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Unspecified NSL offense Granted police bail
Male, 19 years old A sticker on his cellphone bore a forbidden slogan; pro-democracy flyers were found in his pocket; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Unspecified NSL offense Granted police bail
Male, 26 years old A pro-independence banner was found among his belongings; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Unspecified NSL offense Granted police bail
Male, 23 years old Flyers bearing a forbidden slogan were found among his belongings; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-01 Secession Granted police bail
Chow Wai-hung Displayed a banner bearing a forbidden slogan; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-07-21 Inciting or abetting secession Granted release without bail conditions
Tony Chung Former member of Studentlocalism, a pro-independence organization; arrested by the NSD then released on bail; arrested again when trying to seek asylum at the U.S. consulate in Hong Kong in late October 2020; pled guilty to and was convicted of secession and one charge of money laundering; additional charges of money laundering and conspiracy to publish seditious publication were put on court file 2020-07-29 Secession 2020-10-29 Secession Money laundering, Money laundering, Sedition 2021-11-23 Secession Money laundering Denied bail, Charged, Case put on court file, Convicted, Sentenced
Ho Yanni Loren Former member of Studentlocalism, a pro-independence organization; arrested by the NSD and then released on bail; briefly detained in late October 2020 due to developments in Tony Chung’s case 2020-07-29 Inciting or abetting secession, Secession Case pending with bail conditions lifted
Ho Nok Hang Former member of Studentlocalism, a pro-independence organization; arrested by the NSD 2020-07-29 Inciting or abetting secession, Secession Case pending with bail conditions lifted
Wei-Yin Chan Former member of Studentlocalism, a pro-independence organization; arrested by the NSD and then released on bail; briefly detained in late October 2020 due to developments in Chung’s case 2020-07-29 Inciting or abetting secession, Secession Case pending with bail conditions lifted
Jimmy Lai Chee-ying Provided financial support to overseas advocacy group Stand with Hong Kong; made use of government-subsidized land in violation of lease terms; arrested by the NSD; personal properties frozen on May 15, 2021; Next Digital's properties frozen June 17, 2021 2020-08-10 Collusion with foreign forces Fraud, Sedition, Sedition 2020-12-03 Collusion with foreign forces Fraud, Perverting the course of justice, Sedition, Sedition Denied bail, Properties frozen, Charged, In custody due to another case
Royston Chow Tat Kuen Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; provided financial support to an overseas advocacy group; made use of government-subsidized land in violation of lease terms; Chief Operating Officer of Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Collusion with foreign forces Fraud 2020-12-03 Fraud Granted court bail, Charged
Ian Yiu-yan Lai Provided financial support to an overseas advocacy group; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Collusion with foreign forces Granted police bail
Cheung Kim Hung Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; made use of government-subsidized land in violation of lease terms; Chief Executive Officer of Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Collusion with foreign forces Fraud, Sedition 2021-06-18 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Wong Wai-keung Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; made use of government-subsidized land in violation of lease terms; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Fraud 2020-12-03 Fraud Granted court bail, Charged
Ng Tat Kong Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; made use of government-subsidized land in violation of lease terms; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Fraud Granted police bail
Timothy Kin-yang Lai Son of Jimmy Lai; made use of government-subsidized land in violation of lease terms; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Fraud Granted police bail
Agnes Chow Assisted an overseas advocacy group; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Collusion with foreign forces In custody due to another case
Andy Li Assisted overseas advocacy group Stand with Hong Kong; arrested by the NSD; while on bail, attempted to leave Hong Kong and was arrested by mainland PRC authorities and sentenced to seven months; was sent back to Hong Kong after serving jail time; charged and in custody; plead guilty to colluding with foreign forces; charges of possessing ammunition without license and assisting criminals were put on court file 2020-08-10 Collusion with foreign forces Money laundering 2021-03-24 Collusion with foreign forces Funding or assisting criminals, Possessing or dealing in arms without license Collusion with foreign forces In custody, Represented by a pro-government lawyer, Charged, Convicted, Denied bail, Case put on court file
Wilson Li Assisted an overseas advocacy group; arrested by the NSD 2020-08-10 Collusion with foreign forces Money laundering Granted police bail
Lai Chun-pong Owner of a phone repair shop; conspired to harm police officers in December 2019; arrested by the NSD 2020-09-05 Conspiracy with intent to injure 2020-09-07 Conspiracy with intent to injure Denied bail, Charged
Tam Tak-chi Shouted protest slogans and arrested at his home by the NSD; candidate in the July 2020 primary election and re-arrested January 2021 2020-09-06 Subversion Sedition 2020-09-08 Subversion Sedition 2022-04-20 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Female Shouted pro-independence slogans using a megaphone; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-09-06 Unspecified NSL offense Granted police bail
Adam Ma Chun-man Chanted forbidden slogans; arrested at scene of demonstration 2020-09-22 Inciting or abetting secession 2020-11-24 Inciting or abetting secession 2021-11-11 Inciting or abetting secession Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Lui Sai-yu Firearms found at his residence; published protest-related materials; arrested by the NSD; his charge of importing strategic commodities without license was dropped, and charges of possessing offensive weapons and unlicensed ammunition were put on court file 2020-09-25 Inciting or abetting secession Import of strategic commodities without license, Possessing or dealing in arms without license, Possession of offensive weapons 2020-09-26 Inciting or abetting secession Import of strategic commodities without license, Possessing or dealing in arms without license, Possession of offensive weapons2021-04-29 Inciting or abetting secession Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced, Case put on court file
Mother of Lui Sai-yu Lived with Lui in a residence in which firearms were found; arrested by the NSD 2020-09-25 Import of strategic commodities without license, Possessing or dealing in arms without license, Possession of offensive weapons Granted police bail
Ng Wing-tak Conspired to harm police officers in December 2019; arrested by the NSD 2020-10-01 Conspiracy with intent to injure Granted police bail
Unknown Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2020-10-10 Unknown
Tim Luk Hoi Tin Provided accommodation for Tony Chung to avoid arrest; former member of Studentlocalism; arrested by the NSD 2020-11-09 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Wan Yiu-sing Initiated crowdfunding to support Hong Kong refugees in Taiwan; expressed dissent on his radio show; arrested by the NSD 2020-11-21 Financing secession with money or other property Money laundering, Sedition 2021-02-08 Money laundering, Sedition Money laundering, SeditionGranted police bail, Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
Tsang Bik Wan Wan Yiu-sing’s wife; participated in Wan Yiu-sing’s crowdfunding initiative; arrested by the NSD 2020-11-21 Financing secession with money or other property Money laundering Granted police bail
Li Bou-lai Wan Yiu-sing’s assistant; participated in Wan’s crowdfunding initiative; arrested by the NSD 2020-11-21 Financing secession with money or other property Money laundering 2021-05-10 Money laundering Granted police bail, Charged, Properties frozen, Granted court bail
Tong Cheuk-him Chanted pro-independence slogans or waved flags bearing such slogans in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19, 2020; arrested by the NSD; charged with conspiracy to publish seditious material on March 2, 2022 2020-12-07 Inciting or abetting secession Unlawful assembly 2022-03-02 Sedition Granted police bail, Charged, Denied bail
Shum Ka-hon Chanted pro-independence slogans or waved flags bearing such slogans in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19, 2020; arrested by the NSD; charged with conspiracy to publish seditious material on March 2, 2022 2020-12-07 Inciting or abetting secession Unlawful assembly 2022-03-02 Sedition Granted police bail, Charged, Granted court bail
Male, between 16 and 18 years old Chanted pro-independence slogans or waved flags bearing such slogans in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19; arrested by the NSD 2020-12-07 Inciting or abetting secession Unlawful assembly Granted police bail
Eason Chan Yik Shun Participated in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19, 2020; arrested by the NSD 2020-12-07 Unlawful assembly Granted police bail
Isaac Lee Participated in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19, 2020; arrested by the NSD 2020-12-07 Unlawful assembly Granted police bail
Yeung Tsz Chun Participated in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19, 2020; arrested by the NSD 2020-12-07 Unlawful assembly Granted police bail
Male, 23 years old Participated in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19, 2020; arrested by the NSD 2020-12-07 Unlawful assembly Granted police bail
Male, 34 years old Participated in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19, 2020; arrested by the NSD 2020-12-07 Unlawful assembly Granted police bail
Benny Tai Yiu-ting Initiated and organized the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Au Nok-hin Helped organize the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Represented by a pro-government lawyer, Charged
Andrew Chiu Ka-yin Senior member of Power for Democracy, the organization that helped organize the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Ben Chung Kam-lun Senior member of Power for Democracy, the organization that helped organize the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
John Clancey Senior member of Power for Democracy, the organization that helped organize the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Gordon Ng Ching-hang Advocated for voting according to the results of the July 2020 primary election 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Ventus Lau Wing-hong Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Gwyneth Ho Kwai-lam Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Alvin Yeung Ngok-kiu Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Lam Cheuk-ting Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Owen Chow Ka-shin Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD; was granted bail but it was revoked on January 13, 2022 for violating bail conditions 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged, Denied bail
Gary Fan Kwok-wai Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Leung Kwok-hung Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Raymond Chan Chi-chuen Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged, Granted court bail
Hendick Lui Chi-hang Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Ricky Or Yiu-lam Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Lee Chi-yung Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Mike Lam King-nam Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Ng Kin-wai Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Eddie Chu Hoi-dick Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Sam Cheung Ho-sum Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Prince Wong Ji-yuet Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Charged, Granted court bail
Roy Tam Hoi-pong Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Kwok Ka-ki Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Carol Ng Man-yee Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Andrew Wan Siu-kin Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Wu Chi-wai Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Jeremy Tam Man-ho Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Sze Tak-loy Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Kinda Li Ka-tat Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Frankie Fung Tat-chun Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Jimmy Sham Tsz-kit Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Helena Wong Pik-wan Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Kalvin Ho Kai-ming Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Jeffrey Andrews Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Lau Chak-fung Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Claudia Mo Man-ching Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Lawrence Lau Wai-chung Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Tiffany Yuen Ka-wai Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Fergus Leung Fong-wai Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Cheng Tat-hung Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Andy Chui Chi-ki Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Michael Pang Cheuk-kei Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Represented by a pro-government lawyer, Charged
Clarisse Yeung Suet-ying Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Lester Shum Ngo-fai Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
James To Kun-sun Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Henry Wong Pak-yu Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Denied bail, Charged
Roy Kwong Chun-yu Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Lee Yue-shun Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Granted court bail, Charged
Joseph Lee Kok-long Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Winnie Yu Wai-ming Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD; bail revoked on March 8, 2022 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion Charged, Denied bail
Lau Hoi-man Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Ricky Yuen Wai-kit Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion Granted police bail
Joshua Wong Candidate in the July 2020 primary election; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-06 Subversion 2021-02-28 Subversion In custody due to another case, Denied bail, Charged
Daniel Wong Kwok-tung Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Kyrylo (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Rono Fok (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Ng Jing-zeon (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Yeung Tin-ji (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Cheung Zing-jan (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Chow Jing (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Tsang Coek-jin (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Kong Sam-ming (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Cheung Din-joeng (between 18 and 72 years old)Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Kwan Wai-si (between 18 and 72 years old) Assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-14 Funding or assisting criminals Granted police bail
Male, between 28 and 58 years old Related to Wan Yiu-sing’s case; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-29 Financing secession with money or other property Money laundering Granted police bail
Male, between 28 and 58 years old Related to Wan Yiu-sing’s case; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-29 Financing secession with money or other property Money laundering Granted police bail
Female, between 28 and 58 years old Related to Wan Yiu-sing’s case; arrested by the NSD 2021-01-29 Financing secession with money or other property Money laundering Granted police bail
Chan Tze-wah Worked with Jimmy Lai in conjunction with advocacy group Stand with Hong Kong; assisted Andy Li’s attempt to leave Hong Kong; the case for his charge of assisting criminals was put on court file 2021-02-15 Collusion with foreign forces Funding or assisting criminals 2021-02-17 Collusion with foreign forces Funding or assisting criminals Collusion with foreign forces Denied bail, Represented by a pro-government lawyer, Charged, Convicted, In custody, Case put on court file
Male, 19 years old Chanted pro-independence slogans or waved flags bearing such slogans in a protest at the Chinese University of Hong Kong on November 19 2021-02-18 Inciting or abetting secession Unlawful assembly Granted police bail
Stephen Ting Ka-Yu Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; arrested by the NSD 2021-03-02 Fraud Granted police bail
Male, 28 years old Related to the case of Lui Sai-yu 2021-04-30 Inciting or abetting secession Possessing or dealing in arms without license, Possession of offensive weapons Granted police bail
Female, 22 years old Related to the case of Lui Sai-yu 2021-04-30 Possessing or dealing in arms without license Granted police bail
Choy Wing-git Arrested at the scene of a burglary; pro-independence materials found at their home; member of the student group Returning Valiant; charged with burglary on 2021-05-07 and granted bail; charged with inciting or abetting subversion on 2021-09-28 and denied bail 2021-05-05 Inciting or abetting subversion, Subversion Burglary 2021-05-06 Inciting or abetting subversion Burglary, Possession of offensive weapons Inciting or abetting subversion Granted court bail, Charged, Denied bail, Convicted
Chiang, male, 16 years old Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to incite subversion; arrested by the NSD; was denied bail when charged, but later granted bail on December 24, 2021 2021-05-05 Inciting or abetting subversion, Subversion Burglary 2021-09-28 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Granted court bail, Convicted
Wan, female, 15 years old Member of the student group Returning Valiant; pro-independence materials found at their home; conspired to inciting subversion; arrested by the NSD 2021-05-06 Inciting or abetting subversion, Subversion 2021-09-28 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
Yuen, Male, 16 years old Arrested at the scene of a burglary; pro-independence materials found at their home; member of the student group Returning Valiant; charged with burglary on 2021-05-07 and granted bail; charged with inciting or abetting subversion on 2021-09-28 and denied bail 2021-05-06 Inciting or abetting subversion, Subversion 2021-09-28 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
Chan Yau Chun Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to inciting subversion; arrested by the NSD 2021-05-06 Inciting or abetting subversion, Subversion 2021-09-28 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
Chloe Cho Printed and disseminated flyers advocating for Hong Kong independence and the formation of a local army 2021-06-06 Sedition 2021-06-08 Sedition 2022-01-31 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Wong Chun-wai Printed and disseminated flyers advocating for Hong Kong independence and the formation of a local army 2021-06-06 Sedition 2021-06-08 Sedition 2022-01-31 Sedition Charged, Granted court bail, Convicted, Sentenced
Ryan Law Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; Editor-in-Chief of Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD 2021-06-17 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition 2021-06-18 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Chan Pui-man Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; Associate Publisher of Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD; arrested twice for publishing seditious materials in the Apple Daily and the Stand News, respectively 2021-06-17 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition, Sedition 2021-07-21 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition Denied bail, Granted police bail, Charged, In custody
Cheung Chi-wai Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; Digital Platform Director of Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD 2021-06-17 Collusion with foreign forces Granted police bail
Yeung Ching-kei Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; editorial writer for Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD 2021-06-23 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition 2021-07-21 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition Denied bail, Granted police bail, Charged
Fung Wai-kong Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; editorial writer for Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD 2021-06-27 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition 2021-07-21 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition Denied bail, Granted police bail, Charged
Ho Yu-wang Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action 2021-07-07 Terrorist action Conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or property Denied bail, Charged
Au Wen Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action 2021-07-07 Terrorist action Conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or property Denied bail, Charged
Male, 15 years old Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action 2021-07-07 Terrorist action Conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or property Denied bail, Charged
To Yi-si Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action Granted police bail
Shek Wing Sum Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action Granted police bail
Male, 15 years old Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action 2021-07-14 Terrorist action Conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or property Charged, Denied bail
Chan Hoi Leung Driver; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action 2021-07-14 Terrorist action Conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or property Denied bail, Charged
Kwok Man Hei Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; conspired to inciting subversion; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action 2021-07-14 Inciting or abetting subversion, Terrorist action Conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or property Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
So Wing-ching Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-05 Terrorist action 2021-08-31 Terrorist action Conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or property Denied bail, Charged
Yeung Sum Yi Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-12 Terrorist action Granted police bail
Wong Yun To Construction worker; conspired to commit terrorist activities by assisting the purchase of raw materials for making explosive items; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-12 Terrorist action Granted police bail
Cheng Ko Wan Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to inciting subversion; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-12 Terrorist action Granted police bail
Lam Chi Ming Business Manager; donated to Returning Valiant; arrested by the NSL for conspiring to commit terrorist activities 2021-07-12 Terrorist action Granted police bail
Male, 15 years old Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to commit terrorist activities; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-12 Terrorist action 2021-07-14 Terrorist action Denied bail, Charged
Lam Man-chung Senior employee at Next Digital, founded by Jimmy Lai; Executive Editor-in-Chief of Apple Daily, the popular pro-democracy newspaper which published articles calling for sanctions; arrested by the NSD 2021-07-21 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition 2021-07-21 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Chan Yuen-sum Treasurer of the General Union of Hong Kong Speech Therapists, which published three “seditious” cartoon books for children 2021-07-22 Sedition 2021-08-30 Sedition 2022-09-10 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Yeung Yat-yi Vice-Chairwoman of the General Union of Hong Kong Speech Therapists, which published three “seditious” cartoon books for children 2021-07-22 Sedition 2021-07-22 Sedition 2022-09-10 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Fong Tsz-ho Committee Member of the General Union of Hong Kong Speech Therapists, which published three “seditious” cartoon books for children 2021-07-22 Sedition 2021-08-30 Sedition 2022-09-10 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Ng Hau-yi Secretary of the General Union of Hong Kong Speech Therapists, which published three “seditious” cartoon books for children 2021-07-22 Sedition 2021-08-30 Sedition 2022-09-10 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Lai Man-ling Chairwoman of the General Union of Hong Kong Speech Therapists, which published three “seditious” cartoon books for children 2021-07-22 Sedition 2021-07-22 Sedition 2022-09-10 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Charles Kwok Wing-ho Resigned President of the Hong Kong University Student Union (HKUSU); HKUSU praised the actions of and mourned a man who stabbed a police officer on July 1 and then committed suicide 2021-08-18 Advocating terrorism 2021-08-19 Advocating terrorism Granted court bail, Charged
Kinson Cheung King-sang Council Chairperson of the Hong Kong University Student Union (HKUSU); HKUSU praised the actions of and mourned a man who stabbed a police officer on July 1 and then committed suicide 2021-08-18 Advocating terrorism 2021-08-19 Advocating terrorism Granted court bail, Charged
Anthony Yung Chung-hei Council member of the Hong Kong University Student Union (HKUSU); HKUSU praised the actions of and mourned a man who stabbed a police officer on July 1 and then committed suicide 2021-08-18 Advocating terrorism 2021-08-19 Advocating terrorism Granted court bail, Charged
Chris Todorovski Former residence representative of the Hong Kong University Student Union (HKUSU); HKUSU praised the actions of and mourned a man who stabbed a police officer on July 1 and then committed suicide 2021-08-18 Advocating terrorism 2021-08-19 Advocating terrorism Granted court bail, Charged
Lee Cheuk Yan Chairman of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China, the organizer of the annual June 4 commemoration vigil 2021-09-09 Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-09 Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, In custody due to another case
Ho Chun Yan Vice-Chairman of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China, the organizer of the annual June 4 commemoration vigil 2021-09-09 Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-09 Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, In custody due to another case, Granted court bail
Chow Hang Tung Vice-Chairman of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China, the organizer of the annual June 4 commemoration vigil; court granted bail for charge of failing to supply requested information to national security police, but Chow refused to accept the condition of not releasing communications that could endanger national security; court denied bail for the charge of inciting subversion2021-09-08 Failure to supply requested information, Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-09 Failure to supply requested information, Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, In custody due to another case, Bail granted and defendant declined to accept conditions
Leung Kam Wai Exco Member of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China, the organizer of the annual June 4 commemoration vigil; court granted bail for charge of failing to supply requested information to national security police, but Leung refused to accept the condition of not releasing communications that could endanger national security 2021-09-08 Failure to supply requested information 2021-09-09 Failure to supply requested information 2021-12-22 Failure to supply requested information Bail granted and defendant declined to accept conditions, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced, In custody due to another case
Chan Dor Wai Exco Member of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China, the organizer of the annual June 4 commemoration vigil 2021-09-08 Failure to supply requested information 2021-09-09 Failure to supply requested information Failure to supply requested information Granted court bail, Charged, Convicted
Tang Ngok Kwan Exco Member of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China, the organizer of the annual June 4 commemoration vigil 2021-09-08 Failure to supply requested information 2021-09-09 Failure to supply requested information Granted court bail, Charged
Tsui Hon Kwong Exco Member of The Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China, the organizer of the annual June 4 commemoration vigil 2021-09-08 Failure to supply requested information 2021-09-09 Failure to supply requested information Granted court bail, Charged
Wong Yat-chin Convenor of the pro-democracy group Student Politicism, which warned against using the government’s COVID-19 tracking app, set up street booths to spread the group’s message, and collected goods such as food and toiletries to distribute to prison inmates 2021-09-20 Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-21 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
Chan Chi-sum Permanent Secretary of the pro-democracy group Student Politicism, which warned against using the government’s COVID-19 tracking app, set up street booths to spread the group’s message, and collected goods such as food and toiletries to distribute to prison inmates 2021-09-20 Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-21 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
Chu Wai Ying Former Spokesperson for the pro-democracy group Student Politicism, which warned against using the government’s COVID-19 tracking app, set up street booths to spread the group’s message, and collected goods such as food and toiletries to distribute to prison inmates 2021-09-20 Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-21 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Granted court bail, Charged, Convicted
Wong Yuen Lam Spokesperson for the pro-democracy group Student Politicism, which warned against using the government’s COVID-19 tracking app, set up street booths to spread the group’s message, and collected goods such as food and toiletries to distribute to prison inmates 2021-09-22 Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-23 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Charged, Convicted
Leung, female, 16 years old Member of the student group Returning Valiant; conspired to inciting subversion; arrested by the NSD. 2021-09-28 Inciting or abetting subversion 2021-09-28 Inciting or abetting subversion Inciting or abetting subversion Denied bail, Convicted, Charged
Male, 36 years old Possessed firearms or ammunition without a license 2021-10-08 Possessing or dealing in arms without license Unknown
Female, 32 years old Possessed firearms or ammunition without a license 2021-10-08 Possessing or dealing in arms without license Unknown
Male, 22 years old Posted seditious messages on social media platforms including Telegram 2021-12-17 Sedition 2021-12-18 Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Chung Pui-kuen Former Chief Editor of the Stand News; published seditious materials via the Stand News 2021-12-29 Sedition 2021-12-30 Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Patrick Lam Acting Chief Editor of the Stand News; published seditious materials via the Stand News 2021-12-29 Sedition 2021-12-30 Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Denise Ho Singer and activist; former Stand News Board Member; former 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund trustee; arrested by the NSD for publishing seditious materials via Stand News and for colluding with foreign forces via 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund 2021-12-29 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition 2022-05-11 Failing to register under the Societies Ordinance Granted police bail, Granted court bail, Charged
Margaret Ng Barrister; former pro-democracy lawmaker; former Stand News Board Member; former 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund trustee; arrested by the NSD for publishing seditious materials via Stand News and for colluding with foreign forces via 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund 2021-12-29 Collusion with foreign forces Sedition 2022-05-11 Failing to register under the Societies Ordinance Granted police bail, Granted court bail, Charged
Chow Tat-chi Former Stand News Board Member; arrested by the NSD for allegedly publishing seditious materials via the Stand News 2021-12-29 Sedition Granted police bail
Christine Fang Meng-sang Former CEO of Hong Kong Council of Social Service; former Stand News Board Member; arrested by the NSD for publishing seditious materials via the Stand News 2021-12-29 Sedition Granted police bail
Koo Sze-yiu Pro-democracy activist; arrested for incitement of subversion ahead of the Winter Olympics opening ceremony; later charged with "attempting to do or making any preparation to do an act or acts with seditious intention" 2022-02-04 Inciting or abetting subversion 2022-02-05 Sedition 2022-07-12 Sedition Denied bail, Charged, Convicted, Sentenced
Tommy Yuen Singer and pro-democracy advocate; arrested for money laundering and acting with seditious intent; HKD140,000 in assets frozen by the Security Bureau under the NSL Implementation Rules; criticized the government's COVID response 2022-02-15 Money laundering, Sedition 2022-02-17 Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Male, 20 years old Assistant and former brother-in-law of Tommy Yuen; arrested for money laundering 2022-02-15 Money laundering Granted police bail
Hau Wing-yan Shopkeeper in charge of a Taiwanese-style takeaway tea shop; arrested and charged for posting “seditious” material on social media since October 2020 that “incited hatred and incited others to violate anti-epidemic regulations” 2022-02-24 Sedition 2022-02-25 Sedition Charged
Lam Yuen-yi Shopkeeper in charge of a Taiwanese-style takeaway tea shop; arrested and charged with posting “seditious” material on social media since October 2020 that “incited hatred and incited others to violate anti-epidemic regulations” 2022-02-24 Sedition 2022-02-25 Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Wong Tak Keung Martial arts coach arrested for committing acts with seditious intention, planning to set up “an armed force for Hong Kong independence,” and smearing government COVID policies 2022-03-20 Sedition 2022-03-22 Inciting or abetting subversion Possession of offensive weapons, Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Cheung Man Chi Assistant martial arts coach arrested for committing acts with seditious intention, planning to set up “an armed force for Hong Kong independence,” and smearing government COVID policies 2022-03-20 Sedition 2022-03-22 Possessing or dealing in arms without license, Possession of offensive weapons Denied bail, Charged
Chung Suet-ying Former legislative assistant to Baggio Leung and Wai-ching Yau and had assisted the attempted border-crossing of the “Hong Kong 12”; charged with possession of unlicensed firearms 2020-10-10 2020-10-12 Possessing or dealing in arms without license Denied bail, Charged
Garry Pang Moon Yuen Christian pastor; committed acts with seditious intent and "deliberately conducted nuisance behaviour, seriously affecting the solemnity of the judiciary and court operations"; charged with committing several acts with seditious intent and with "uttering seditious words" by speaking in the courtroom and encouraging the audience to clap hands 2022-04-06 Sedition 2022-04-08 Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Tang Kin-wah Former Vice Chairman of the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions (CTU); arrested by the NSD for committing acts with seditious intent; incited disorderly behavior during court hearings and "deliberately conducted nuisance behavior, seriously affecting the solemnity of the judiciary and court operations" 2022-04-06 Sedition
Siu Wan Lung Arrested by the NSD for committing acts with seditious intent; incited disorderly behavior during court hearings and "deliberately conducted nuisance behavior, seriously affecting the solemnity of the judiciary and court operations" 2022-04-06 Sedition
Chiu Mei-ying Arrested by the NSD for "uttering seditious words"; incited disorderly behavior during court hearings and "deliberately conducted nuisance behavior, seriously affecting the solemnity of the judiciary and court operations" 2022-04-06 Sedition 2022-04-08 Sedition Granted court bail, Charged
Lee Wing Kam Arrested by the NSD for committing acts with seditious intent; incited disorderly behavior during court hearings and "deliberately conducted nuisance behavior, seriously affecting the solemnity of the judiciary and court operations" 2022-04-06 Sedition
So Yat Kai Arrested by the NSD for committing acts with seditious intent; incited disorderly behavior during court hearings and "deliberately conducted nuisance behavior, seriously affecting the solemnity of the judiciary and court operations" 2022-04-06 Sedition
Allan Au Ka Lun Journalist, former Stand News columnist, and Professional Consultant at the Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Journalism and Communication; arrested for conspiracy to publish seditious materials in relation to the Stand News case 2022-04-11 Sedition Granted police bail
Joseph Zen Ze-kiun Cardinal and Bishop emeritus of the Catholic Church in Hong Kong; former 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund trustee; arrested by the NSD for colluding with foreign forces via 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund 2022-05-11 Collusion with foreign forces 2022-05-11 Failing to register under the Societies Ordinance Granted police bail, Granted court bail, Charged
Hui Po-keung Former Cultural Studies professor at Lingnan University; former 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund trustee; arrested by NSD for colluding with foreign forces via 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund 2022-05-11 Collusion with foreign forces 2022-05-11 Failing to register under the Societies Ordinance Granted police bail, Granted court bail, Charged
Cyd Ho Former pro-democracy lawmaker in Hong Kong; former 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund trustee; while serving a jail sentence for civil disobedience during the 2019 protests, was arrested for colluding with foreign forces via 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund 2022-05-11 Collusion with foreign forces 2022-05-11 Failing to register under the Societies Ordinance Granted police bail, Granted court bail, Charged
Sze Ching-wee Pro-democracy activist; former Secretary General of 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund 2022-05-11 Failing to register under the Societies Ordinance Granted court bail, Charged
Chan Kwun Yuk Kitchen worker; acted with seditious intent by promoting hatred and disaffection against the government, inciting others to commit unlawful acts or violence, and promoting disobedience to the law, through social media posts 2022-06-23 Sedition 2022-06-23 Sedition Charged, Denied bail
Chan Wai Lun IT technician; acted with seditious intent by promoting hatred and disaffection against the government, inciting others to commit unlawful acts or violence, and promoting disobedience to the law, through social media posts 2022-06-23 Sedition 2022-06-23 Sedition Charged, Denied bail
Male, 39-50 years old Arrested in relation to a case involving a martial arts coach accused of running an armed separatist movement; NSD officials said they seized “a large number of offensive weapons” including machetes, knives, and swords from his residence 2022-06-23 Sedition
Male, 39-50 years old Arrested in relation to a case involving a martial arts coach accused of running an armed separatist movement; NSD officials said they seized “a large number of offensive weapons” including machetes, knives, and swords from his residence 2022-06-23 Sedition
Male, 39-50 years old Arrested in relation to a case involving a martial arts coach accused of running an armed separatist movement; NSD officials said they seized “a large number of offensive weapons” including machetes, knives, and swords from his residence 2022-06-23 Sedition
Male, 27-29 years old Arrested in relation to a case involving the manufacturing of explosives 2022-06-24 Manufacturing of explosives
Male, 27-29 years old Arrested in relation to a case involving the manufacturing of explosives 2022-06-24 Manufacturing of explosives
Choi, 31 years old Arrested for acting with seditious intent and possessing imitation firearms, offensive weapons, and unlicensed electronic communications devices 2022-06-22 Possession of imitation firearms, Possession of offensive weapons, Possession of unlicensed telecommunications apparatus, Sedition
Chan, 53 years old Arrested for acting with seditious intent and possessing imitation firearms, offensive weapons, and unlicensed electronic communications devices 2022-06-26 Possession of imitation firearms, Possession of offensive weapons, Possession of unlicensed telecommunications apparatus, Sedition2022-06-30 Possession of offensive weapons, Possession of unlicensed telecommunications apparatus, Sedition Denied bail, Charged
Tsang Chi-kin After hiding from police in safehouses for almost two years and attempting to leave Hong Kong, arrested for violating bail conditions set for protest-related charges; the NSD took over the case due to "potential national security risks"; accused of rioting at a 2019 protest, where he was shot by police 2022-07-13 Failing to appear in court Denied bail
Fung Ching-wah After hiding from police in safehouses for almost two years and attempting to leave Hong Kong, arrested for violating bail conditions set for protest-related charges; the NSD took over the case due to "potential national security risks"; accused of rioting at a 2019 protest 2022-07-13 Failing to appear in court Denied bail
Male, 16 years old After hiding from police in safehouses for almost two years and attempting to leave Hong Kong, arrested for violating bail conditions set for protest-related charges; the NSD took over the case due to "potential national security risks" 2022-07-13 Failing to appear in court Denied bail
Wong Hoi-ming After hiding from police in safehouses for almost two years and attempting to leave Hong Kong, arrested for violating bail conditions set for charges related to a 2019 protest; the NSD took over the case due to "potential national security risks" 2022-07-13 Failing to appear in court Unlawful assembly Denied bail, Convicted
Tong, 36 years old Officer in the Immigration Department; arrested for acting with seditious intent by posting "anti-government" messages on social media, and suspected by police of voyeurism and “publication of images originating from commission of voyeurism” 2022-08-01 Sedition Granted police bail
Luk, 34 years old Computer technician in the Inland Revenue Department; arrested for acting with seditious intent by posting "anti-government" messages on social media 2022-08-01 Sedition 2022-08-02 Sedition Charged, Denied bail
Male, 28 years old Civil servant, administrator of the Facebook page "Civil Servant Secrets"; arrested for acting with seditious intent 2022-08-09 Sedition Granted police bail
Male, 29 years old Civil servant, administrator of the Facebook page "Civil Servant Secrets"; arrested for acting with seditious intent 2022-08-09 Sedition Granted police bail
Male Civil servant, arrested for fraud in relation to the "Civil Servant Secrets" Facebook page cases 2022-08-09 Fraud Granted police bail
Male Civil servant, arrested for fraud in relation to the "Civil Servant Secrets" Facebook page cases 2022-08-09 Fraud Granted police bail